On board ASTROSAT are five astronomy payloads for simultaneous multi-band observations:
- Twin 38-cm Ultraviolet Imaging Telescopes (UVIT) covering Far-UV to optical bands.
- Three units of Large Area Xenon Proportional Counters (LAXPC) covering medium energy X-rays from 3 to 80 keV with an effective area of 8000 sq.cm. at 10 keV.
- A Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) with conical foil mirrors and X-ray CCD detector, covering the energy range 0.3-8 keV. The effective area will be about 120 sq.cm. at 1 keV.
- A Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride coded-mask imager (CZTI), covering hard X-rays from 10 to 150 keV, with about 6 deg field of view and 480 sq.cm. effective area.
- A Scanning Sky Monitor (SSM) consisting of three one-dimensional position-sensitive proportional counters with coded masks. The assembly is placed on a rotating platform to scan the available sky once every six hours in order to locate transient X-ray sources.
- Simultaneous multi-wavelength monitoring of intensity variations in a broad range of cosmic sources.
- Monitoring the X-ray sky for new transients.
- Sky surveys in the hard X-ray and UV bands.
- Broadband spectroscopic studies of X-ray binaries, AGN, SNRs, clusters of galaxies and stellar coronae.
- Studies of periodic and non-periodic variability of X-ray sources.